What is Glipizide?
Glipizide is an anti-diabetic drug designed to control high blood sugar in patients with type-2 diabetes. The drug belongs to the sulfonylurea class and is
classified as a second generation sulfonylurea which is more potent as compared to first generation sulfonylurea. Glipizide also has the following chemical
How does Glipizide work?
Individuals who have type-2 diabetes are unable to produce sufficient amounts of insulin to control their sugar level. Insulin is a hormone produced by the
pancreas which regulates the level of glucose in a body and breaks down sugar. Insufficient amount of insulin can lead to diabetes.
Glipizide helps the pancreas produce insulin. The drug partially blocks potassium channels among beta cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. This leads
to the opening of voltage-gated calcium channels, resulting in insulin increase from beta cells.
How to use Glipizide?
Glipizide is an oral medication that comes as tablets and extended-release (long acting) tablets. It is available in different strengths such as Glipizide
2.5mg, Glipizide 5mg and Glipizide 10mg. Before you start taking this medication, you must consult with your doctor who will prescribe the appropriate
dosage according to your medical condition.
Normally, Glipizide is taken by mouth 30 minutes before the first meal of the day. The tablet can be swallowed whole with water. Avoid chewing, crushing,
or breaking the tablet. Your doctor will let you know whether to take the medicine once a day or twice a day. This will depend on the strength of the
Before you take the drug, you must inform your doctor about any other medical condition such as allergies, kidney or liver disease, blockage in your
intestines, heart disease, glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), chronic diarrhea, malnutrition, etc. You must also make sure your doctor is
aware of any other medication you take or if you are pregnant.
It is important to remember that Glipizide is not a cure for diabetes and is only taken for the treatment of type-2 diabetes.
What are the Side effects of Glipizide
Glipizide may cause the following side effects:
- Loss of appetite
- Weight gain
- Upset stomach
In some cases, the drug may lead to serious side effects which require immediate medical attention. If you experience the following serious side effects,
consult your doctor right away:
- Signs of infection such as a sore throat
- Easy bleeding/bruising
- Dark urine
- Unusual tiredness or fatigue
- Sudden weight gain
- Yellowing of eyes
- Mood swings
- Swelling of hands or feet
- Low blood sugar level
Most doctors recommend Glipizide with a proper diet and exercise program. It is important you follow the treatment plan accordingly to get the best
IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.
GLIPIZIDE EXTENDED-RELEASE TABLET - ORAL
COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Glucotrol XL
USES: Glipizide is an anti-diabetic drug (sulfonylurea-type) used along with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar. It is used in patients with type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes). It works by stimulating the release of your body's natural insulin. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke.
HOW TO USE: Read the Patient Information Leaflet provided by your pharmacist before you start taking glipizide and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, consult your doctor or pharmacist. Take this medication by mouth, usually once daily with breakfast; or use as directed by your doctor. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to therapy. Do not crush or chew extended-release tablets. Doing so can release all of the drug at once, increasing the risk of side effects. Also, do not split the tablets unless they have a score line and your doctor or pharmacist tells you to do so. Swallow the whole or split tablet without crushing or chewing. Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same time each day. Monitor blood glucose levels on a regular basis. Inform your doctor if your blood glucose measurements are too high or too low.
SIDE EFFECTS: Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea, constipation, upset stomach, gas, headache, and weight gain may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly. An empty tablet shell may appear in your stool. This is harmless. Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects. Tell your doctor immediately if any of these highly unlikely but very serious side effects occur: persistent sore throat or fever, easy bleeding or bruising, stomach pain, yellowing eyes or skin, dark urine, unusual tiredness or weakness, unusual or sudden weight gain, mental/mood changes, swelling of the hands or feet, seizures. This medication can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). This effect may occur if you do not consume enough calories (from food, juices, fruit, etc.). The symptoms include chills, cold sweat, blurred vision, dizziness, drowsiness, shaking, rapid heart rate, weakness, headache, fainting, tingling of the hands or feet, or hunger. It is a good habit to carry glucose tablets or gel to treat low blood sugar. If you are in a situation where you don't have these reliable forms of glucose, eat a quick source of sugar such as table sugar, honey, or candy, or drink a glass of orange juice or non-diet soda to quickly raise your blood sugar level. Tell your doctor immediately about the reaction. To help prevent hypoglycemia, eat meals on a regular schedule and do not skip meals. Symptoms of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) include thirst, increased urination, confusion, drowsiness, flushing, rapid breathing, or fruity breath odor. If these symptoms occur, tell your doctor immediately. Your medication dosage may need to be increased. A serious allergic reaction to this drug is unlikely, but seek immediate medical attention if it occurs. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction include: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), dizziness, trouble breathing. This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist. In the US - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.
PRECAUTIONS: Before taking glipizide, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details. This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: metabolic conditions (e.g., diabetic ketoacidosis). Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver disease, kidney disease, thyroid disease, certain hormonal conditions (adrenal/pituitary insufficiency, SIADH-syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone), electrolyte imbalance (hyponatremia), stomach/intestine problems (e.g., gastrointestinal stenosis or stricture, impaired emptying). You may experience blurred vision, dizziness, or drowsiness due to extremely low or high blood sugar levels. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness or clear vision until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Limit alcohol while taking this medication because it can increase the risk of developing hypoglycemia. Alcohol can rarely interact with glipizide and cause a serious reaction (disulfiram-like reaction) with symptoms such as facial flushing, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, or stomach pain. Consult your doctor or pharmacist about the safe use of alcohol. During times of stress, such as fever, infection, injury or surgery, it may be more difficult to control your blood sugar. Consult your doctor, as a change in your medication may be required. This medication may make you more sensitive to the sun. Avoid prolonged sun exposure, tanning booths or sunlamps. Use a sunscreen and wear protective clothing when outdoors. Caution is advised when using this drug in the elderly because they may be more sensitive to its effects, especially hypoglycemia. This medication should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy. It is not recommended for use for at least one month before delivery due to the potential for harm to an unborn baby. Insulin may be preferred during pregnancy. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. Based on information from related drugs, this medication may pass into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.
DRUG INTERACTIONS: Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval. Many drugs can affect your blood sugar levels, making it more difficult to control your blood sugar. Before you start, stop, or change any medication, talk with your doctor or pharmacist about how the medication may affect your blood sugar. Check your blood sugar levels regularly as directed by your doctor. Tell your doctor about the results and of any symptoms of high or low blood sugar. (See also Side Effects section.) Your doctor may need to adjust your anti-diabetic medication, exercise program, or diet. Beta-blocker medications (e.g., metoprolol, propranolol, glaucoma eye drops such as timolol) may prevent the fast/pounding heartbeat you would usually feel when your blood sugar level falls too low (hypoglycemia). Other symptoms of low blood sugar such as dizziness, hunger, or sweating are unaffected by these drugs. Check the labels on all your medicines (e.g., cough-and-cold products) because they may contain ingredients that could affect your blood sugar. Ask your pharmacist about the safe use of those products.
OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call the US national poison hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canadian residents should call their local poison control center directly. Symptoms of overdose may include: shakiness, rapid heartbeat, sweating, loss of consciousness.
NOTES: Do not share this medication with others. It is recommended you attend a diabetes education program to better understand diabetes and all the important aspects of its treatment including meals/diet, exercise, personal hygiene, medications and getting regular eye, foot, and medical exams. Consult your doctor or pharmacist. Keep all medical appointments. Laboratory and/or medical tests (e.g., liver and kidney function tests, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, complete blood counts) will be performed to monitor for side effects and response to therapy. Regularly check your blood or urine for sugar, as directed by your doctor or pharmacist.
MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.
STORAGE: Store at room temperature between 59-86 degrees F (15-30 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets. Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.
MEDICAL ALERT: Your condition can cause complications in a medical emergency. For enrollment information call MedicAlert at 1-800-854-1166 (USA) or 1-800-668-1507 (Canada).
Information last revised April 2012. Copyright(c) 2012 First Databank, Inc.